Scapula and Upper limb

During the anatomy bootcamp they gave us this list of the upper limb bones and the names for all the little protrusions and divots. I never memorized it as well as I should, so of course I did terrible on that part of the practical. I tried to be better about it this time. It has really helped to go into ARCOM’s model lab, which has all the bones and you can get a feel for where everything is. Of course, it also helped to draw them out.

Try to remember that Fossa means a shallow depression.
Try to remember the Tubercle means projection/protuberance.

Like I did with the Vertebrae, I made this with blank labels. I like to write them in, erase, and repeat. This works really well on the Good Notes app.

 

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Vertebral Column

Usual disclaimer, all drawings are done by me, while I try to remain as accurate as possible, I am only a student. There are natural human variations and differences between textbooks. That being said, I hope my illustrations can be of some help.

There are 5 types of Vertebrae:

7 Cervical Vertebrae

12 Thoracic Vertebrae

5 Lumbar Vertebrae

5(ish) fused Sacral Vertebrae

3-5 fused Coccyx Vertebrae

Most of them are named according to number, i.e C3 or T7 or S1. C1 and C2, however, have their own names. C1 is referred to the Atlas (after the Greek titan forced to hold up the sky forever) and C2 is the Axis (on which the world turns.)

The best way to tell the two apart is the protrusion on the Axis, known as the dens.
Cervical Vertebrae are easiest to identify by their 3 foramen (holes). The two smaller foramen are for the vertebral artery and vein.
Thoracic vertebrae can be identified either by their facets where the ribs set, or by the way their lateral view looks like a giraffe.
Lumbar vertebrae are some of the heftiest vertebrae, and according to Dr. T, look like moose.
This is a section of a few vertebrae and the ligaments that help hold them together. One of the easiest of ID is the Ligamentum Flavum because of its yellowish color. Also because Flavum means yellow.

To help me study I’ve started to makes these images with blank arrows to fill out later. Here they are below to help practice:


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Tools of the Trade

I am beginning to realize that medical school requires even more acronyms then the Army. One of my classes is called Foundations of Osteopathic Patient Care (FOPC). Despite the name, however, the class is basically learning beginning doctoring. How to do a physical, how to write a SOAP note, how to take a history, and all the many things I will have to learn to work with patients in the future.

Part of starting FOPC is getting my doctor’s bag. I realize that I actually paid for the bag with tuition, but seeing all of the new instruments laid out, it felt like Christmas morning.

The bag to hold all my new goodies, though it’s actually almost too small, I might have to rearrange a few things.
Lot of little bits; pulse oximeter, measuring tape, pen light, tuning forks(no idea what they are for), and the good ole fashioned reflex hammer.
Blood pressure cuff,  I’ve actually used one these before, but I’m out of practice.
Of course, a stethoscope. ARCOM actually has all of their Stethoscopes donated and engraved with each student’s name and class.
This is the parts for an otoscope. I have no idea how to use anything in this one, but that’s the point of school after all.
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Chemistry Review 1

So I’ve finally started Biomedical Essentials of Comprehensive Osteopathic Medicine (BECOM), or as it should be called; Things you learned in undergrad that you wish you remembered. No, but really, BECOM takes the concepts you learned in your prereqs and gives them a medical bent. Like why no-carb diets can result in ketoacidosis and what that does to the body.

As for things I wish I had memorized in undergrad, I now really have to memorize the functional groups in chemistry.

We covered these in organic chemistry and for whatever reason I never took the time to memorize them, which was just dumb because when I put my mind to it, it really only took about an hour. First I watched this video. The guy goes through the groups and why he places them in the boxes in a particular way. So I drew out the boxes with the names in them and filled in the structure over and over. Then I took the names away, just leaving the boxes and filled them in with name and structure. Last I wrote them out as a list. According to a couple of sources, the best way to retain memorized information like that is to repeat it at least 6 hours apart, so I try and rewrite the chart every day or so to keep it fresh.

This naming system works for most of the functional groups, though the suffix is different for each of them. -ane is the suffix for Alkanes.

Oxidation and reduction always drives me crazy, because it is very counterintuitive. The pneumonic is OIL RIG, Oxidation is Loss, Reduction is Gain. What that basically means is Oxidation is the process of losing and electron (like a H or O) and thus the molecule becomes more positive. Reduction is when a molecule gains an electron and becomes more electronegative.

Here are a couple of extra structures to memorize. Most of these are dealing with metabolism.

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Suboccipital Triangle

Quick disclaimer, all drawings are done by me, while I try to remain as accurate as possible, I am only a student. There are natural human variations and differences between textbooks. That being said, I hope my illustrations can be of some help.

The Suboccipital Triangle is pretty much what it sounds like, a triangular region formed by muscles below the occipital bone.

Lots of long names here for such small muscles, but there is a method to the madness. The 2 Obliquus muscles attach at an angle (Oblique = slant). Superior and Inferior just tell you location, i.e. Obliquus Capitis Superior is above Obliquus Capitis Inferior. The 2 Rectus muscles attach straight up and down (Rectus = straight). The Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor can be broken down into: a straight small muscle located at the back of the skull. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major brakes down into: a straight larger muscle located at the back of the skull. Thank goodness for latin.

If you noticed on the chart, all of the muscles in the suboccipital triangle are innervated by the Suboccipital Nerve and are supplied by the Vertebral Artery.

References:

Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Moore, K. L., Agur, A. M., & Dalley, A. F. (2015). Essential clinical anatomy(5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Intrinsic Back Muscles

Usual disclaimer, all drawings are done by me, while I try to remain as accurate as possible, I am only a student. There are natural human variations and differences between textbooks. That being said, I hope my illustrations can be of some help.

Before reading about the Intrinsic Back muscles, take a chance to check out this blog by Dr. Throckmorton about ‘How to Succeed in Medical Gross Anatomy‘.

Now there are quite a few intrinsic back muscles. I did not draw them all, but here are some of the ones that are easiest to see in a dissection.

The three muscles: Iliocostalis, Longissimus, and Spinalis are collectively known as the Erector Spinae

The Intrinsic Back Muscles are deep to the Extrinsic Back Muscles, but they are separated into 3 categories based on their depth to one another.

Don’t get discouraged by how many of them there are. Their names give away their location. If it ends with capitis, it attaches to the skull. If it ends with cervicis, it attaches to the cervical vertebrae. If it ends in thoracis, it attaches to the thoracic vertebrae and ribs. If it ends in lumborum, it attaches to the lumbar spine. See! It makes sense.

Now, last but not least is the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Back Muscles. It took me a bit to understand this one. See it has to do with where the muscles develop when we are all tadpoles in our mom’s bellies.

The Intrinsic Back Muscles arise from something called with Epimere of the myotome. While the Extrinsic Back Muscles arise from the Hypomere of the myotome.

This represents a cut section of a developing embryo.

Because of how these sections develop it effects how the different muscle groups are innervated and what they do.

 

References:

Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

Moore, K. L., Agur, A. M., & Dalley, A. F. (2015). Essential clinical anatomy(5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

 

 

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Extrinsic Back Muscles

Alright, it’s time to hit the ground running. The bootcamp is over and orientation is in full swing. To help me remember the muscles, nerves, and arteries that we reviewed in class I’m going to share them here.

Quick disclaimer, all drawings are done by me, while I try to remain as accurate as possible, I am only a student. There are natural human variations and differences between textbooks. That being said, I hope my illustrations can be of some help.

This post covers the Extrinsic Back Muscles.

First are the 5 Superficial Back Muscles:

 

After the superficial back muscles are the 2 intermediate back muscles, Serratus Posterior Superior and Serratus Posterior Inferior. Serratus means ‘saw-tooth’ and refers to the appearance of the Serratus muscles.

I apologize for the crappy handwriting, but I have been told that writing instead of typing your notes is better for your memory.

References:

Netter, F. H. (2019). Atlas of human anatomy (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

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